The following papers were written in 1994 to 1997, for courses of Dr Hoff's doctoral studies at the California Institute of Integral Studies:


Clinical issues for therapists who work with clients involved in sadomasochism or dominance/submission (1995).


Shame and guilt, and how it impacts men with submissive fantasies (1997).


An interview with William Henkin, Ph.D., who works as a licensed psychotherapist in San Francisco

Drama therapy and dominant/submissive drama: Similarities and differences (1995).


Gender roles and gender role reversal in sadomasochism or dominance/submission (1994).


An exploration of three different cultural perspectives in regard to their views on women's sexuality: 1) ancient Goddess cultures; 2) Judeo/Christian patriarchy; and 3) a Western sub-culture of dominatrixes, in which women are sexually assertive and involved in enacting dominant fantasies and sado-masochistic rituals (1994).


Can men's erotic submissive fantasy enactments lead to transpersonal experiences? A qualitative transpersonal approach (1996).


An interview with Ava Taurel on sadomasochistic practices (1996).


An interview with Sybil Holiday, a dominatrix, about the deeper meaning of sadomasochism or dominance/submission (1994).



Current research study


Abstract of Dr Hoff's recent research 

Previous papers by Dr Hoff

Research by other authors


CARAS (research on alternative sexuality)